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Herbs & Spices
From India To The World

 

 

Description

Chilli is the dried ripe fruit of the genus Capsicum. Capsicum annuum is an annual sub –shrub, the flowers of which are borne singly and fruits usually pendent, which provide red peppers, cayenne, paprika and chillies and sweet pepper (bell pepper) a mild form with large inflated fruits.

Capsicum frutescence is a perennial chilly with small sized pods which are highly pungent. It is commonly known as ‘bird chilly’ and ‘Tabasco’.

Origin and Distribution

Chilly is reported to be a native of South America and is widely distributed in all tropical and sub tropical countries including India. It was first introduced in India by Portuguese towards the end of 15th Century. Now it is grown all over the world except in colder parts.

Uses
Dry chilly is extensively used as spice in curried dishes. It is also used as an ingredient in curry powder and in seasonings. Bird chilly is used in making hot sauces as pepper sauce and Tabsco sauce.

Paprika, Bydagi chilly, Warangal chapatta and similar high colour less pungent varieties are widely used for colour extraction. This colour is highly popular among food and beverage processors for its use as a colourant, since this being a ‘natural plant colour’.

As a medicine it is used as an counter irritant in Lumbago, Neuralgia, and Rheumatic disorders. Capsicum has a tonic and carminative action. Taken inordinately it may cause gastro-enteritis. The enzyme isolated from chilly is used in the treatment of certain type of cancers. Oleoresin capsicum is used in pain balms and vaporubs. Dehydrated green chilly is a good source of vitamin ‘c’


Botanical name Family name Commercial part
Capsicum annum L.,
Capsicum frutescens L. Solanaceae Green as well as ripe and dried pod (fruit)

Indian Names
Hindi : Lal mirch
Bengali : Lanka, Lankamorich
Gujarati : Marcha
Kannada : Mensina kai
Malayalam : Mulaku
Marathi : Mirchi
Oriya : Lanka
Punjabi : Lalmirch
Tamil : Milagay
Telugu : Mirapa kaya
Urdu : Lalmirch

Name in international languages
Spanish : Pimenton
French : Puvre de Guinee
German : Paprika
Arabic : Filfil Ahmar
Dutch : Spaanse Peper
Italian : Peperone
Portuguese : Pimento
Russian : Struchkovy pyeret
Japanese : Togarashi
Chinese : Hesiung Yali chiao
British : Chillies(Hot) Pepper(Sweet)